*1.*原始问题：Generating permutations lazily

I’m looking for an algorithm to generate permutations of a set in such a way that I could make a lazy list of them in Clojure. i.e. I’d like to iterate over a list of permutations where each permutation is not calculated until I request it, and all of the permutations don’t have to be stored in memory at once.

Alternatively I’m looking for an algorithm where given a certain set, it will return the “next” permutation of that set, in such a way that repeatedly calling the function on its own output will cycle through all permutations of the original set, in some order (what the order is doesn’t matter).

Is there such an algorithm? Most of the permutation-generating algorithms I’ve seen tend to generate them all at once (usually recursively), which doesn’t scale to very large sets. An implementation in Clojure (or another functional language) would be helpful but I can figure it out from pseudocode.

*2.*被采纳答案

Yes, there *is* a “next permutation” algorithm, and it’s quite simple too. The C++ standard template library (STL) even has a function called `next_permutation`

.

The algorithm actually finds the *next* permutation — the lexicographically next one. The idea is this: suppose you are given a sequence, say “32541”. What is the next permutation?

If you think about it, you’ll see that it is “34125”. And your thoughts were probably something this: In “32541”,

- there is no way to keep the “32” fixed and find a later permutation in the “541” part, because that permutation is already the last one for 5,4, and 1 — it is sorted in decreasing order.
- So you’ll have to change the “2” to something bigger — in fact, to the smallest number bigger than it in the “541” part, namely 4.
- Now, once you’ve decided that the permutation will start as “34”, the rest of the numbers should be in increasing order, so the answer is “34125”.

The algorithm is to implement precisely that line of reasoning:

- Find the longest “tail” that is ordered in decreasing order. (The “541” part.)
- Change the number just before the tail (the “2”) to the smallest number bigger than it in the tail (the 4).
- Sort the tail in increasing order.

You can do (1.) efficiently by starting at the end and going backwards as long as the previous element is not smaller than the current element. You can do (2.) by just swapping the “4” with the ‘2″, so you’ll have “34521”. Once you do this, you can avoid using a sorting algorithm for (3.), because the tail was, and is still (think about this), sorted in decreasing order, so it only needs to be reversed.

The C++ code does precisely this (look at the source in `/usr/include/c++/4.0.0/bits/stl_algo.h`

on your system, or see this article); it should be simple to translate it to your language: [Read “BidirectionalIterator” as “pointer”, if you’re unfamiliar with C++ iterators. The code returns `false`

if there is no next permutation, i.e. we are already in decreasing order.]

`template `
bool next_permutation(BidirectionalIterator first,
BidirectionalIterator last) {
if (first == last) return false;
BidirectionalIterator i = first;
++i;
if (i == last) return false;
i = last;
--i;
for(;;) {
BidirectionalIterator ii = i--;
if (*i <*ii) {
BidirectionalIterator j = last;
while (!(*i <*--j));
iter_swap(i, j);
reverse(ii, last);
return true;
}
if (i == first) {
reverse(first, last);
return false;
}
}
}

It might seem that it can take O(n) time per permutation, but if you think about it more carefully, you can prove that it takes O(n!) time for all permutations in total, so only O(1) -- constant time -- per permutation.

The good thing is that the algorithm works even when you have a sequence with repeated elements: with, say, "232254421", it would find the tail as "54421", swap the "2" and "4" (so "232454221"), reverse the rest, giving "232412245", which is the next permutation.

*3.*其他高票答案

*3.1.*第1个答案

Assuming that we're talking about lexicographic order over the values being permuted, there are two general approaches that you can use:

- transform one permutation of the elements to the next permutation (as ShreevatsaR posted), or
- directly compute the
`n`

th permutation, while counting`n`

from 0 upward.

For those (like me 😉 who don't speak c++ as natives, approach 1 can be implemented from the following pseudo-code, assuming zero-based indexing of an array with index zero on the "left" (substituting some other structure, such as a list, is "left as an exercise" ;-):

```
1. scan the array from right-to-left (indices descending from N-1 to 0)
1.1. if the current element is less than its right-hand neighbor,
call the current element the pivot,
and stop scanning
1.2. if the left end is reached without finding a pivot,
reverse the array and return
(the permutation was the lexicographically last, so its time to start over)
2. scan the array from right-to-left again,
to find the rightmost element larger than the pivot
(call that one the successor)
3. swap the pivot and the successor
4. reverse the portion of the array to the right of where the pivot was found
5. return
```

Here's an example starting with a current permutation of CADB:

```
1. scanning from the right finds A as the pivot in position 1
2. scanning again finds B as the successor in position 3
3. swapping pivot and successor gives CBDA
4. reversing everything following position 1 (i.e. positions 2..3) gives CBAD
5. CBAD is the next permutation after CADB
```

For the second approach (direct computation of the `n`

th permutation), remember that there are `N!`

permutations of `N`

elements. Therefore, if you are permuting `N`

elements, the first `(N-1)!`

permutations must begin with the smallest element, the next `(N-1)!`

permutations must begin with the second smallest, and so on. This leads to the following recursive approach (again in pseudo-code, numbering the permutations and positions from 0):

```
To find permutation x of array A, where A has N elements:
0. if A has one element, return it
1. set p to ( x / (N-1)! ) mod N
2. the desired permutation will be A[p] followed by
permutation ( x mod (N-1)! )
of the elements remaining in A after position p is removed
```

So, for example, the 13th permutation of ABCD is found as follows:

```
perm 13 of ABCD: {p = (13 / 3!) mod 4 = (13 / 6) mod 4 = 2; ABCD[2] = C}
C followed by perm 1 of ABD {because 13 mod 3! = 13 mod 6 = 1}
perm 1 of ABD: {p = (1 / 2!) mod 3 = (1 / 2) mod 2 = 0; ABD[0] = A}
A followed by perm 1 of BD {because 1 mod 2! = 1 mod 2 = 1}
perm 1 of BD: {p = (1 / 1!) mod 2 = (1 / 1) mod 2 = 1; BD[1] = D}
D followed by perm 0 of B {because 1 mod 1! = 1 mod 1 = 0}
B (because there's only one element)
DB
ADB
CADB
```

Incidentally, the "removal" of elements can be represented by a parallel array of booleans which indicates which elements are still available, so it is not necessary to create a new array on each recursive call.

So, to iterate across the permutations of ABCD, just count from 0 to 23 (4!-1) and directly compute the corresponding permutation.

*3.2.*第2个答案

You should check the Permutations article on wikipeda. Also, there is the concept of Factoradic numbers.

Anyway, the mathematical problem is quite hard.

In `C#`

you can use an `iterator`

, and stop the permutation algorithm using `yield`

. The problem with this is that you cannot go back and forth, or use an `index`

.

*3.3.*第3个答案

More examples of permutation algorithms to generate them.

Source: http://www.ddj.com/architect/201200326

- Uses the Fike's Algorithm, that is the one of fastest known.
- Uses the Algo to the Lexographic order.
- Uses the nonlexographic, but runs faster than item 2.

1.

```
PROGRAM TestFikePerm;
CONST marksize = 5;
VAR
marks : ARRAY [1..marksize] OF INTEGER;
ii : INTEGER;
permcount : INTEGER;
PROCEDURE WriteArray;
VAR i : INTEGER;
BEGIN
FOR i := 1 TO marksize
DO Write ;
WriteLn;
permcount := permcount + 1;
END;
PROCEDURE FikePerm ;
{Outputs permutations in nonlexicographic order. This is Fike.s algorithm}
{ with tuning by J.S. Rohl. The array marks[1..marksizn] is global. The }
{ procedure WriteArray is global and displays the results. This must be}
{ evoked with FikePerm(2) in the calling procedure.}
VAR
dn, dk, temp : INTEGER;
BEGIN
IF
THEN BEGIN { swap the pair }
WriteArray;
temp :=marks[marksize];
FOR dn := DOWNTO 1
DO BEGIN
marks[marksize] := marks[dn];
marks [dn] := temp;
WriteArray;
marks[dn] := marks[marksize]
END;
marks[marksize] := temp;
END {of bottom level sequence }
ELSE BEGIN
FikePerm;
temp := marks[k];
FOR dk := DOWNTO 1
DO BEGIN
marks[k] := marks[dk];
marks[dk][ := temp;
FikePerm;
marks[dk] := marks[k];
END; { of loop on dk }
marks[k] := temp;l
END { of sequence for other levels }
END; { of FikePerm procedure }
BEGIN { Main }
FOR ii := 1 TO marksize
DO marks[ii] := ii;
permcount := 0;
WriteLn ;
WrieLn;
FikePerm ; { It always starts with 2 }
WriteLn ;
ReadLn;
END.
```

2.

`PROGRAM TestLexPerms; CONST marksize = 5; VAR marks : ARRAY [1..marksize] OF INTEGER; ii : INTEGER; permcount : INTEGER;`

PROCEDURE WriteArray; VAR i : INTEGER; BEGIN FOR i := 1 TO marksize DO Write ; permcount := permcount + 1; WriteLn; END;

PROCEDURE LexPerm ; { Outputs permutations in lexicographic order. The array marks is global } { and has n or fewer marks. The procedure WriteArray () is global and } { displays the results. } VAR work : INTEGER: mp, hlen, i : INTEGER; BEGIN IF THEN BEGIN { Swap the pair } work := marks[1]; marks[1] := marks[2]; marks[2] := work; WriteArray ; END ELSE BEGIN FOR mp := DOWNTO 1 DO BEGIN LexPerm<>; hlen := DIV 2; FOR i := 1 TO hlen DO BEGIN { Another swap } work := marks[i]; marks[i] := marks[n - i]; marks[n - i] := work END; work := marks[n]; { More swapping } marks[n[ := marks[mp]; marks[mp] := work; WriteArray; END; LexPerm<> END; END;

BEGIN { Main } FOR ii := 1 TO marksize DO marks[ii] := ii; permcount := 1; { The starting position is permutation } WriteLn < Starting position: >; WriteLn LexPerm ; WriteLn < PermCount is , permcount>; ReadLn; END.

3.

`PROGRAM TestAllPerms; CONST marksize = 5; VAR marks : ARRAY [1..marksize] of INTEGER; ii : INTEGER; permcount : INTEGER;`

PROCEDURE WriteArray; VAR i : INTEGER; BEGIN FOR i := 1 TO marksize DO Write ; WriteLn; permcount := permcount + 1; END;

PROCEDURE AllPerm (n : INTEGER); { Outputs permutations in nonlexicographic order. The array marks is } { global and has n or few marks. The procedure WriteArray is global and } { displays the results. } VAR work : INTEGER; mp, swaptemp : INTEGER; BEGIN IF THEN BEGIN { Swap the pair } work := marks[1]; marks[1] := marks[2]; marks[2] := work; WriteArray; END ELSE BEGIN FOR mp := DOWNTO 1 DO BEGIN ALLPerm<< n - 1>>; IF > THEN swaptemp := 1 ELSE swaptemp := mp; work := marks[n]; marks[n] := marks[swaptemp}; marks[swaptemp} := work; WriteArray; AllPerm< n-1 >; END; END;

BEGIN { Main } FOR ii := 1 TO marksize DO marks[ii] := ii permcount :=1; WriteLn < Starting position; >; WriteLn; Allperm < marksize>; WriteLn < Perm count is , permcount>; ReadLn; END.

*3.4.*第4个答案

the permutations function in clojure.contrib.lazy_seqs already claims to do just this.

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